A narrow regulatory approach that examines individual firms rather than the sector and inadequate disclosure laws could have allowed weak Sharia banks to escape the authorities’ attention, potentially threatening to spark an Islamic banking crisis.
“Rather than just looking at one bank and examining the risks there, you need to look at a more macro level of the industry,” said Rifaat Ahmad Abdul Karim, who heads Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB), a top industry body.
“We need to see who’s connected with what. It’s not only the individual banks, but how they are connected at the macro level because then you can see who’s exposed to what.”
Since the global economic and property slump, Sharia banks’ earnings have dropped by up to 40 per cent on year.
The slide in property markets could highlight weakness in the regulation of the Islamic banking industry.
“In certain countries where the regulations are not as tight as in some jurisdictions, we may find one or two institutions that may pass through the sieve for a while,” said Vaseehar Hassan Abdul Razack, chairman of Unicorn International Islamic Bank Malaysia, adding that Bahrain and Malaysia were well regulated.
“Many of the Islamic banks globally, and especially in the GCC [Gulf Cooperation Council] countries, are real-estate oriented so this could be one risk factor.”
Unlike the United States, which recently put 19 top lenders through “stress tests” to see which can survive a severe downturn, and Europe which is preparing to do the same, there have been few calls for Islamic banks to be tested to see if they need extra capital to weather heavier losses.
While the US stress test results showed all banks were solvent, regulators ordered them to raise nearly $75 billion (Dh275 billion) to build a capital cushion.
“One of the biggest weaknesses in Islamic finance is that too many of the banks have gone into real estate and equities and both of these are underperforming,” said Sa’ad Rahman, Islamic banking executive director at Calyon. “The stress test should not be seen as a stick to be beaten under, but should be an honest assessment of where they are.”
Islamic banks are governed by national authorities, and if they so choose, by industry bodies. The level and nature of supervision vary across markets, reflecting the industry’s infancy and fragmented regulatory framework. Much depends on the will of regulators to wield the stick, and the Gulf needs a stronger push, said Alex Saleh, a partner at law firm DLA Piper Middle East. For example, “a lot of the [Islamic] investment products that are sold by the investment companies are not regulated in Kuwait,” he said.
He cited the example of wakala (agency) investments which could be structured so that an agent need not reimburse the investor the entire sum in the case of a loss.
IFSB has disclosure rules on capital adequacy and credit risks, but like other Sharia finance bodies, its regulations are not binding on the sector and compliance is voluntary.
“Quite often you have a lot of mezzanine products so the banks have a lot of latitude on whether to report those things under one or the other category,” said Raj Madha, EFG-Hermes banking analyst, referring to instruments with debt and equity features.
“It allows for opacity which certainly some banks are able to take advantage of, and at least in principle, it creates the opportunity for not disclosing some losses. Obviously those listed entities, particularly in the UAE, with good public disclosure policies operate to a much higher standard than that.” (Courtesy: GulfNews)